Model Layouts of Dairy Farms
- A dairy building should be at a higher elevation than the surrounding ground to offer a good slope for rainfall and drainage for the wastes of the dairy to avoid stagnation within.
- Soil should be fertile as it is required for fodder cultivation
- For selection it should also be kept in mind that dairy building should have maximum exposure to the sun and it should be protected from prevailing strong wind currents whether hot or cold.
- Easy accessibility to the buildings is always desirable. So the building of dairy farm should be located near all-weathered road
- There should be abundant supply of fresh, clean and soft water.
- Areas infested with wild animals and dacoits should be avoided. Narrow gates, high manager curbs, and loose hinges, protruding nails, smooth finished floor in the areas where the cows move and other such hazards should be eliminated.
- Dairy buildings should only be in those areas from where the owner can sell his products profitably and regularly. He should be in a position to satisfy the needs of the farm within no time and at a reasonable
Facilities are required at dairy farm
- A wheel dip filled with disinfectant at the main gate of farm for biosecurity
- Shed for milk animals
- Shed for dry animals
- Shed for pregnant animals
- Shed for Replacement heifers
- Shed for Calves
- Shed for Diseased animals
- Postmortem Room
- Milking parlors with a record room
- Storage room for milk
- Silage bunkers
- Stores for concentrates and dry roughages
- Mangers/feeding tables
- Water troughs
- Foot bath
- Manure pits
- Artificial insemination shed attached to a semen processing and storage laboratory
- Veterinary dispensary
- Shed for parking tractor, trolley etc.
- Workshop for repair and keeping of farm implements
- Offices and facility of accommodation for farm manager and staff
- To protect animals from sun burn, rain, hot and cold wind.
- To provide clean and confortable Shelter
- Providing better Accommodation in cheaper cost
- To protect animals from Wild Animals and Theft
- Better Milk Production
- Better Utilization of Labor
- Production of higher quality of milk and milk products
- Better health of animals
- Decrease in Mortality rate of Calf
- Proper Disease control
- Better care and supervision of Animals
- Better productive and reproductive efficiency of Animals
- Proper control of feeding animals
- Encouragement of other Farmer
Layout of Dairy Farm –Housing
- Housing of animal is the most important factor in dairy farming. A good housing leads to good management practices and ultimately optimum production. The housing of dairy animals depends upon:
- Number of animals
- Type of breed of animals
- Local environmental conditions
- Finances available
- Facilities to be provided
Different types of housing
- Free stall
- Tie Stall
- Loose Housing system
- Among these, free stall is the only recommended type of housing for successful dairy farming.
- Location and Grouping of Farm Building
- Location of Pathway and Roads
- Division of Farm Land into Plots
- Suitable Distribution of Farm
- Land under Building, Paddocks and Roads
- Land under Fodder cultivation
- Land under Cash Crops
Pathway and Roads
- Pathway must connect with each building of cattle yard, office and residential quarters
- Road must well Gravel for Quick Transport
- Layout of road must be such which required less land
- Operation on Farm must be Easy and Economical to carry
- Number and Size of plot must be according to Cropping rotation
- All plot must be connected with Roads and Irrigation Channels
- Layout of plot must be such it is irrigate easily without soil erosion
Dairy Farm Building
- House for Dairy Cattle
- Other farm building
- Dairy building
Housing Requirements for Animals
- An efficient management of cattle will be incomplete without a well-planned and adequate housing of cattle.
- Improper planning of animal housing leads to additional labour charges.
- The housing should have proper sanitation, durability, arrangements for the production of clean milk under convenient and economic conditions.
- The entire shed should be surrounded by a boundary wall of 5″ height from three side and manger etc., on one side.
- The feeding area should be provided with 2 to 2 ½ feet of manger space per cow.
- All along the manager, there shall be 10″ wide water trough to provide clean, even, available drinking water.
- The water trough constructed can minimize the loss of fodders during feeding.
- Near the manager, under the roofed house 5″ wide floor should be paved with bricks having a little slope. Beyond that, there should be open unpaved area (40’X35′) surrounded by 5″ wall with one gate.
- It is preferable that animals face north when they are eating fodder under the shade.
- During cold wind in winter the animals will automatically lie down to have the protection from the walls.
- The inside floor of the barn should be of some impervious material which can be easily kept clean and dry and is not slippery. Grooved cement concrete floor is still better. The surface of the cowshed should be laid with a gradient of 1″ to 1 14″ from manger to excreta channel. An overall floor space of 65 to 70 sq. per adult cow should be satisfactory.
- The inside of the walls should have a smooth hard finish of cement, which will not allow any lodgment of dust and moisture. Corners should be round. The open space in between supporting pillars will serve for light and air circulation.
- Roof of the barn may be of asbestos sheet or tiles. However, iron sheets with aluminum painted tops to reflect sunrays and bottoms provided with wooden insulated ceilings can also achieve the objective. A height of 8 feet at the sides and 15 feet at the ridge will be sufficient to give the necessary air space to the cows. An adult cow requires at least about 800 cubic feet of air space under tropical conditions.
- Cement concrete continuous manger with removable partitions is the best from the point of view of durability and cleanliness. A height of 1 ‘-4″ for a high front manger and 6″ to 9″ for a low front manger is considered sufficient. Low front mangers are more comfortable for cattle but high front mangers prevent feed wastage. The height at the back of the manger should be kept at 2′-6″ to 3″. An overall width of 2′ to 2 1/2’ is sufficient for a good manger.
- The central walk should have a width of 5′-6′ exclusive of gutters when cows face out, and 4′-5′ when they face in. The feed alley, in case of a face out system should be 4′ wide, and the central walk should show a slope of 1″ from the center towards the two gutters running parallel to each other, thus forming a crown at the center.
- The manure gutter should be wide enough to hold all dung without getting blocked, and be easy to clean. Suitable dimensions are 2″ width with a cross-fall of 1” away from standing. The gutter should have a gradient of 1″ for every 10′ length. This will permit a free flow of liquid excreta.
- The doors of a single range cowshed should be 5″ wide with a height of 7′, and for double row shed the width should not be less than 8″ to 9′. All doors of the barn should lie flat against the external wall when fully open.